Contents tagged with Ocean_liners

  • Secret of the Lost Liners VI. - AMERICA

    Tags: balogh_tamás, tit_hajózástörténeti_modellező_és_hagyományőrző_egyesület, Ocean_liners, Encyclopedia_of_ocean_liners, Secret_of_the_Lost_Liners

    The first episode of the band-new six-part documentary series "Secrets of the Lost Liners" started on Sky/History in the UK on Wednesday 27 July 2022 at 21:00. The six episodes will be shown as follows: NORMANDIE (27.07.2022.), QUEEN ELIZBETH (04.08.2022.), ANDREA DORIA (11.08.2022.), REX (18.08.2022.), CAP ARCONA (25.08.2022.), AMERICA (09.01.2022). International broadcasts are likely to follow later in 2022-2023.

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    This is the most extensive and detailed 6 x 1 hour on the subject. Charting a century of history of ocean liners, the most informed experts and authors tell the story how these ships were designed, built and served on the oceans, and how they eventually became victims of war, accident or human error.

    On the occasion of the beginning of the presentation of the series, on the day of the screening of each episode, we will publish the background materials summarizing the research related to the history of the ocean liners in the given episode and the preliminary plans made for the animations to be shown in the series, both prepared by the president of our association, Dr. Tamás Balogh, who worked as animation director, responsible for the design and production of the technical animations presented in the series.

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    The background material on the historical research of the American ocean liner AMERICA (1939-1994) featured in the sixth episode can be downloaded here.

    The uncut version of the animation draft for the AMERICA episode can be downloaded here.

    It would be great if you like the article and pictures shared. If you are interested in the works of the author, you can find more information about the author and his work on the Encyclopedia of Ocean Liners Fb-page.

    If you would like to share the pictures, please do so by always mentioning the artist's name in a credit in your posts. Thank You!

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  • National Geographic Magazine reports on the secrets of LUSITANIA

    Tags: underwater_cultural_heritage, balogh_tamás, wreck_diving, RMS_Lusitania, Ocean_liners, Encyclopedia_of_ocean_liners

    The remains of the British giant steamer LUSITANIA, resting in the Atlantic Ocean, were visited by the first expedition, which included both German and Hungarian members between July 6-14, 2022, of which members for the first time managed to get into the No. 1. boiler room of the ship and explore it thoroughly. On this occasion, the president of our association Dr. Tamás Balogh, who participated in the expedition by evaluating the underwater photoes and footage made by the divers, wrote an article, which can now be read on the website of the Hungarian edition of the National Geographic Magazine.

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    Fig. 1: LUSITANIA is on the cover.


    An article summarizing the latest research results is available
    in Hungarian here
    in English here.


    Below we share some drawings made by hand on site during the expedition, which show the state of the wreck in 1915 immediately after the sinking, and today, 2022, of the stern of the ship, which was the research area of ​​the first half of the 7-day expedition.

     

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    Fig. 2: The stern of the LUSITANIA on the seabed as seen from the boat deck in 1915 (above) and 2022 (below). Drawing by Dr. Tamás Balogh © 2022.

     

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    Fig. 3: The stern of the LUSITANIA on the seabed as seen from the bottom of the ship in 1915 (above) and 2022 (below). Drawing by Dr. Tamás Balogh © 2022.

     

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    Fig. 4: An overview of the wreckage of the LUSITANIA seen from the bow in 2022. Drawing by Dr. Tamás Balogh © 2022.

     

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    Fig. 5: The points visited by the expedition on the wrecks of the LUSITANIA. Drawing by Dr. Tamás Balogh © 2022.


    It would be great if you like the article and pictures shared. If you are interested in the works of the author, you can find more information about the author and his work on the Encyclopedia of Ocean Liners Fb-page.

    If you would like to share the pictures, please do so by always mentioning the artist's name in a credit in your posts. Thank You!

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  • Secret of the Lost Liners V. - CAP ARCONA

    Tags: balogh_tamás, tit_hajózástörténeti_modellező_és_hagyományőrző_egyesület, Ocean_liners, Encyclopedia_of_ocean_liners, Secret_of_the_Lost_Liners

    The first episode of the band-new six-part documentary series "Secrets of the Lost Liners" started on Sky/History in the UK on Wednesday 27 July 2022 at 21:00. The six episodes will be shown as follows: NORMANDIE (27.07.2022.), QUEEN ELIZBETH (04.08.2022.), ANDREA DORIA (11.08.2022.), REX (18.08.2022.), CAP ARCONA (25.08.2022.), AMERICA (09.01.2022). International broadcasts are likely to follow later in 2022-2023.

    imdb.jpg

    This is the most extensive and detailed 6 x 1 hour on the subject. Charting a century of history of ocean liners, the most informed experts and authors tell the story how these ships were designed, built and served on the oceans, and how they eventually became victims of war, accident or human error.

    On the occasion of the beginning of the presentation of the series, on the day of the screening of each episode, we will publish the background materials summarizing the research related to the history of the ocean liners in the given episode and the preliminary plans made for the animations to be shown in the series, both prepared by the president of our association, Dr. Tamás Balogh, who worked as animation director, responsible for the design and production of the technical animations presented in the series.

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    The background material on the historical research of the German ocean liner CAP ARCONA (1927-1945) featured in the fifth episode can be downloaded here.

    The uncut version of the animation draft for the CAP ARCONA episode can be downloaded here.

    It would be great if you like the article and pictures shared. If you are interested in the works of the author, you can find more information about the author and his work on the Encyclopedia of Ocean Liners Fb-page.

    If you would like to share the pictures, please do so by always mentioning the artist's name in a credit in your posts. Thank You!

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  • Secret of the Lost Liners IV. - REX

    Tags: balogh_tamás, tit_hajózástörténeti_modellező_és_hagyományőrző_egyesület, Ocean_liners, Encyclopedia_of_ocean_liners, Secret_of_the_Lost_Liners

    The first episode of the band-new six-part documentary series "Secrets of the Lost Liners" started on Sky/History in the UK on Wednesday 27 July 2022 at 21:00. The six episodes will be shown as follows: NORMANDIE (27.07.2022.), QUEEN ELIZBETH (04.08.2022.), ANDREA DORIA (11.08.2022.), REX (18.08.2022.), CAP ARCONA (25.08.2022.), AMERICA (09.01.2022). International broadcasts are likely to follow later in 2022-2023.

    This is the most extensive and detailed 6 x 1 hour on the subject. Charting a century of history of ocean liners, the most informed experts and authors tell the story how these ships were designed, built and served on the oceans, and how they eventually became victims of war, accident or human error.

    On the occasion of the beginning of the presentation of the series, on the day of the screening of each episode, we will publish the background materials summarizing the research related to the history of the ocean liners in the given episode and the preliminary plans made for the animations to be shown in the series, both prepared by the president of our association, Dr. Tamás Balogh, who worked as animation director, responsible for the design and production of the technical animations presented in the series.

    The background material on the historical research of the Italian ocean liner REX (1931-1944) featured in the fourth episode can be downloaded here.

    The uncut version of the animation draft for the REX episode can be downloaded here.

    It would be great if you like the article and pictures shared. If you are interested in the works of the author, you can find more information about the author and his work on the Encyclopedia of Ocean Liners Fb-page.

    If you would like to share the pictures, please do so by always mentioning the artist's name in a credit in your posts. Thank You!

  • Secret of the Lost Liners III. - ANREA DORIA

    Tags: balogh_tamás, tit_hajózástörténeti_modellező_és_hagyományőrző_egyesület, Ocean_liners, Encyclopedia_of_ocean_liners

    The first episode of the band-new six-part documentary series "Secrets of the Lost Liners" started on Sky/History in the UK on Wednesday 27 July 2022 at 21:00. The six episodes will be shown as follows: NORMANDIE (27.07.2022.), QUEEN ELIZBETH (04.08.2022.), ANDREA DORIA (11.08.2022.), REX (18.08.2022.), CAP ARCONA (25.08.2022.), AMERICA (09.01.2022). International broadcasts are likely to follow later in 2022-2023.

    imdb.jpg

    This is the most extensive and detailed 6 x 1 hour on the subject. Charting a century of history of ocean liners, the most informed experts and authors tell the story how these ships were designed, built and served on the oceans, and how they eventually became victims of war, accident or human error.

    On the occasion of the beginning of the presentation of the series, on the day of the screening of each episode, we will publish the background materials summarizing the research related to the history of the ocean liners in the given episode and the preliminary plans made for the animations to be shown in the series, both prepared by the president of our association, Dr. Tamás Balogh, who worked as animation director, responsible for the design and production of the technical animations presented in the series.

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    The background material on the historical research of the Italian ocean liner ANREA DORIA (1951-1956) featured in the first episode can be downloaded here.

    The uncut version of the animation draft for the ANREA DORIA episode can be downloaded here.

    It would be great if you like the article and pictures shared. If you are interested in the works of the author, you can find more information about the author and his work on the Encyclopedia of Ocean Liners Fb-page.

    If you would like to share the pictures, please do so by always mentioning the artist's name in a credit in your posts. Thank You!

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  • Secret of the Lost Liners I. - NORMANDIE

    Tags: balogh_tamás, tit_hajózástörténeti_modellező_és_hagyományőrző_egyesület, Ocean_liners, Encyclopedia_of_ocean_liners

    The first episode of the band-new six-part documentary series "Secrets of the Lost Liners" started on Sky/History in the UK on Wednesday 27 July 2022 at 21:00. The six episodes will be shown as follows: NORMANDIE (27.07.2022.), QUEEN ELIZBETH (04.08.2022.), ANDREA DORIA (11.08.2022.), REX (18.08.2022.), CAP ARCONA (25.08.2022.), AMERICA (09.01.2022). International broadcasts are likely to follow later in 2022-2023.

    imdb.jpg

    This is the most extensive and detailed 6 x 1 hour on the subject. Charting a century of history of ocean liners, the most informed experts and authors tell the story how these ships were designed, built and served on the oceans, and how they eventually became victims of war, accident or human error.

    On the occasion of the beginning of the presentation of the series, on the day of the screening of each episode, we will publish the background materials summarizing the research related to the history of the ocean liners in the given episode and the preliminary plans made for the animations to be shown in the series, both prepared by the president of our association, Dr. Tamás Balogh, who worked as animation director, responsible for the design and production of the technical animations presented in the series.

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    The background material on the historical research of the French ocean liner NORMANDIE (1932-1942/48) featured in the first episode can be downloaded here.

    The uncut version of the animation draft for the NORMANDIE episode can be downloaded here.

    It would be great if you like the article and pictures shared. If you are interested in the works of the author, you can find more information about the author and his work on the Encyclopedia of Ocean Liners Fb-page.

    If you would like to share the pictures, please do so by always mentioning the artist's name in a credit in your posts. Thank You!

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  • Elveszett óceánjárók titkai I. - NORMANDIE

    Tags: balogh_tamás, tit_hajózástörténeti_modellező_és_hagyományőrző_egyesület, Óceánjárók, Ocean_liners, Encyclopedia_of_ocean_liners

    Az "Elveszett óceánjárók titkai" című vadonatúj hatrészes dokumentum-film sorozat első epizódját 2022. július 27-én, szerdán 21:00 órakor kezdték el vetíteni a Sky/History televíziós csatornán az Egyesült Királyságban. A hat epizód vetítésére az alábbiak szerint kerül sor: NORMANDIE (2022.07.27.), QUEEN ELIZBETH (2022.08.04.), ANDREA DORIA (2022.08.11.), REX (2022.08.18.), CAP ARCONA (2022.08.25.), AMERICA (2022.09.01.). A nemzetközi adások valószínűleg később, 2022-2023 folyamán következnek.

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    Ez a legkiterjedtebb és legrészletesebb 6 x 1 óra a témában. Az óceánjárók egy évszázadnyi történetét feltérképezve a legtájékozottabb szakértők és szerzők mesélnek arról, hogyan tervezték, építették ezeket a hajókat és hogyan szolgáltak az óceánon, s végül hogyan váltak a háború, balesetek, vagy emberi mulasztások áldozatává.

    A sorozat bemutatásának megkezdése alkalmából az egyes epizódok vetítésének napján közreadjuk az adott epizódban szereplő óceánjárók történetéhez kapcsolódó kutatásokat összefoglaló háttéranyagokat és a sorozatban megjelenítendő animációkhoz készített előzetes terveket, amelyeket egyesületünk elnöke, Dr. Balogh Tamás készített, aki a sorozatban bemutatott műszaki animációk elkészítéséért felelős rendezőként dolgozott.

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    Az első epizódban szereplő francia NORMANDIE óceánjáró (1932-1942/48) történeti kutatásáról készített háttéranyag letölthető: innen.

    Az NORMANDIE-epizód számára készített animáció előtervének vágatlan változata letölthető: innen.

    Nagyszerű, ha tetszik a cikk és a benne megosztott képek. Ha érdeklik a szerző munkái, az Encyclopedia of Ocean Liners Fb-oldalán találhat további információkat a szerzőről és munkásságáról.

    A képek megosztása esetén, a bejegyzésben mindig tüntesse fel az alkotó nevét. Köszönöm!

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  • A look at the drawing office - a documentary animation of ocean liners

    Tags: tit_hajózástörténeti_modellező_és_hagyományőrző_egyesület, hajózástörténeti_tagozat, balogh_tamas, Ocean_liners, Encyclopedia_of_ocean_liners

    On April 1, 2021, Max Barber, the creative director of London-based Born This Way Media Ltd., asked Dr. Tamás Balogh, a maritime historian, wreck researcher and author of the Encyclopedia of Ocean Liners, whether he join to the production of a new documentary series with six 60 minute-episodes, which has just entered the pre-production phase with the working title “Lost Lines - Palaces on the Ocean Floor”. Tamás Balogh joined the project as specialist of historical and engineering analysis, as well as the technical drawings and design, the details of which he gives an insight into below.

     

    I.) What is the series about and how was it created?

    When most people hear the word “ocean liner,” TITANIC comes to mind. However, eventually released as “Secrets of The Lost Liners,” the docmentary seeks to free the category from the shadow of this single ship and provide a credible picture of the design, services, and loss of the world’s largest ocean liners as a series of in-depth maritime history. The series shows thus the most famous trans-oceanic passenger ships - the CAP ARCONA (1927-1945), the NORMANDIE (1932-1948), the REX (1931-1944), the QUEEN ELIZABETH ( 1938-1972), AMERICA (1939-1994) and ANDREA DORIA (1951-1956) - that have sunk in the last 100 years as a result of war, accident or human error, and in addition to the historical chronology of events, the series give an overwiew about the evolution of ship-design and safety systems.

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    Fig. 1: The preview of the series and the first episode can be viewed here.

     

    The series have been the result of a major transformation in the television  market from June 2020 to November 2021, when Arrow Media of the United States created a new platform for documentaries and content providers in the United States and the United Kingdom, and Herbert L. Kloiber of Night Train Media in Germany has acquired British BossaNova Media Ltd, a UK television rights distributor, co-producer, co-developer and commissioner of television works. In collaboration with the two of them, they created the acquisition fund, which is now creating the second major series of documentaries. As part of this series, the first 6 episodes of “Secrets of a Lost Liners” have been created, followed by further episodes.

    The team of creators formed by the British Content Kings Ltd. Production (a group of leading companies, independent creators of TV and multi platform programming experts), and colleagues of the Born This Way Media Ltd,  - producers and directors Jason Davidson and Peter Roch , and co-producer Max Barber - who created for, among others: the History Channel include BBC, ITV, C4, Channel 5 , Sky, FOX, NBC, Paramount, National Geographic, Facebook Watch, Netflix and YouTube Originals.

     

    II.) Why and how had been managed to get involved in the work as a Hungarian?

    As Max Barber learned of Tamás Balogh’s project to show the history of ocean liners, which resulted in the creation of the world’s largest collection of digital ship profiles, he assumed the creator might be able to get involved in filmmaking.

    He hit the nail on the head: after agreeing on the details - abouth exactly what is needed for the production - Tamás Balogh was happy to say yes to the honorable request, after all as the result of his work 500 ocean liners - built between 1830 and 2003 by 100 shipping companies from about 20 countries - were digitally formed. In addition he processed the preliminary plans in the case of 12 ships from 7 shipping companies in 6 countries, and also drew up 2 ships which, although construction had begun but were never completed, and 3 which had been converted into warships. Finally, he produced drawings of 27 ships commissioned by 17 shipping companies from 7 countries, the construction of which was never started.

    This work serves several purposes at once. On the one hand, as part of its general dissemination objectives, it contributes to the publication of a large-scale encyclopedia of the history of ocean liners and to the organization of various exhibitions on ocean-going passenger ships, providing the necessary 2D graphic representation. On the other hand, it was created specifically to support the authentic and detailed display of ocean liners in various film productions by the 3D vizualization of ships.

    This collection assisted in making the most recent work of the director Ildikó Enyedi which is entitled “The Story of My Wife”, which won the jury prize at the Otranto Film Festival in 2021, and additionally was nominated for a Palm d'Or Award at the Cannes Film Festival, and for Sydney Film Prize at the Sydney Film Festival in 2021, and for Audience Award at the Kerala International Film Festival and a Best Feature Award at the Zsigmond Vilmos Festival in 2022. The ships in the film were designed by Tamás Balogh and brought to life by the staff of the KGB Studio under the leadership of Béla Klingl. Details of the design process can be found here.

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    Fig. 2: An ocean liner designed by Tamás Balogh in one of the scenes in the film.

     

    The uniquely huge and accurate digital database provided the right basis, which, together with previous references, enabled the artist to participate in the creative process as a Hungarian - together with Benett Gyurik,  animator of the technical drawings, and Péter Könczöl post-production supervisor - for a film series in which he was able to work with the world's most renowned experts and researchers in the history of ocean liners. The list of contributors in the film series includes the names such as Mark Chirnside of Britain, or Dr. Stephen Payne OBE who is the designer of the only real ocean liner on the world at this time, the QUEEN MARY 2. The quality of the film series is revealed by the fact that in addition to the best experts, the richest public collections, (including the National Archives of the United States and the Library of Congress, the Royal Institute of Naval Engineers, and the archives of the French Line) have been provided their collection for the production.

     

    III.) How was the digital profile collection created?

    Tamás Balogh became a lover of ocean liners as a child, effect of "The Great Book of Ships" written by Imre Marjai (founder the Association which led by him now), and the image of the sinking TITANIC in that book, painted by Willy Stöwer, and began making drawings of various types of ships, including ocean liners as well.

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    Fig. 3: Imre Marjai: The Great Book of Ships (Móra Publishing House, Budapest, 1981). On the left is the author’s own drawing of the German liner DEUTSCHLAND, and on the right is a painting by Willy Stöwer of the TITANIC disaster.

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    Fig. 4: The KAISER WILHELM II ocean liner. The colored pen drawing in the style of Imre Marjai (1912-2005) of Hungary and Francis Osborn Braynard (1916-2007) of America is the work of Dr. Tamás Balogh.

     

    However, in addition to the perspective drawings depicting the ships, numerous side and top view drawings have also been made to compare the sizes of different ships or to analyze some of their details.

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    Fig. 5: Sketches which help define terms of proportions and details to find way during the later creative activity  (Dr. Tamás Balogh).

     

    It all starts with sketches like this. They help to engrave the form deep into the mind, while also raising awareness of the details which have not yet been thoroughly learned, so more information needs to be obtained about them.

    This is followed by the collection of missing information, which can sometimes take years. After all, it is necessary to visit the archives preserving the original plans of the ship, the museums presenting the builder's models and to research as many contemporary photographs and publications as possible, which can give a credible presentation of the details in question. Drawing can only begin after this, based on the information gathered from the documents used as a source. So it is clear that countless sources help clarify all small parts of the ships, down to the most magnute details, until a profile drawing can be made.

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    Fig. 6: Production and sources of digital profiles from shipyard documents and bilder's models to archive photos (Dr. Tamás Balogh).

     

    IV.) How was animation made from the digital plans?

    "Secrets of Lost Liners" documentary production was in the pre-production stage when Tamás Balogh were invited (pre-production is the work done on a film before full-scale production begins, such as the script, casting, location scouting, equipment and crew, and the shot list, i.e. it is the planning stage). Thus, Tamás Balogh had enough time to design the visual world and the animation elements to be presented for each of the 6 episodes.

    It soon became clear that directors and producers were not interested in using CGI produced using 3D models, so they opted for 2D animations instead. In line with this, Tamás Balogh built the entire visual world by analogy with the making of technical drawings, in which the individual ships were placed into a gridbox (in front of a lattice background) evoking the added lines of section paper used by engineers, creating the optical illusion of a three-dimensional space by this way. A set of three plan sheets was prepared for each vessel, which included the body plan (together with the half-breadth plan, sheer-plan and rigging plan), general arrangement plan (with cross- and longitudinal sections), and as well as the paint scheme.

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    Fig. 7: Digital blueprints and longitudinal section for the episode about the ocean liner NORMANDIE  (Dr. Tamás Balogh). Further still images from the planning periode of the creative work can be seen here.

     

    These formed the basic elements, which then made motions during the animation. The sequence of the animation scenes was entirely designed by Dr. Tamás Balogh, who also wrote the screenplay for the scenes containing the animations. The directors of the series gave a completely free hand to this, their instructions did not restrict the creative process.

    The preparation of the scenarios was preceded by a thorough analysis of the history of the ships presented in each episode, extensive archival research, including the original records of official investigations into the shipwreck, so that those interested could see in the animations exactly that,, what which and how happened actually.

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    Fig. 8: An animation of the destruction of NORMANDIE accompanies the agony of the ship from the ignition of the fire trough its spread on decks, to the stages of extinguishing the fire and to the capsizing of the ship due to asymmetrical flooding with fire water (Dr. Tamás Balogh).

    The directors did not intervene in this work process at all - only after watching the animations made by the Hungarian team, commenting before incorporating them into each episode of the film series - in order to signalize minor modifications which were necessary for use, but apart from these, the animations were accepted, essentially without change.

    This - in addition to the research (that forms the basis of the animations), the animation script and the recognition of the quality of the design - is primarily praises the work of Benett Gyurik, who worked as an animator, and Péter Könczöl, who was responsible for quality assurance.

    The six episodes of the first season of the series will begin airing in the spring of 2022 on the British program of the History Channel.

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    At the end of the joint work, Max Barber acknowledged the quality of our work with a reference letter, responding by this way to the gratitude and joy we felt during the entire periode of the preparation for being able to participate in the project.

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    It would be great if you like the article and pictures shared. If you are interested in the works of the author, you can find more information about the author and his work on the Encyclopedia of Ocean Liners Fb-page.

    If you would like to share the pictures, please do so by always mentioning the artist's name in a credit in your posts. Thank You!

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  • Fourth funnel of OLYMPIC-class liners

    Tags: titanic, balogh, tit, tit_hajózástörténeti_modellező_és_hagyományőrző_egyesület, tit_hmhe, hajózástörténeti_tagozat, Ocean_liners, Encyclopedia_of_ocean_liners

    With regard to ocean liners built with many funnels, it is widely believed that in older times many funnels were needed only because the poor efficiency of early boilers required this. However, there are many examples of large numbers of funnels being used even after they were no longer absolutely necessary due to the development of boilers. In the present study, we recall these examples.

    Introduction:

    The silhouette of the ships has been defined for centuries by a plethora of high masts and sails, making it recognizable from afar. As steam propulsion gained more and more ground in ocean-going shipping, the masts and sails disappeared and were gradually replaced by ships that were emitting dense smoke and soot, or just friendly white steam. Finally the thin and tall, or even thick and squat funnels, which lined up on upper deck of the huge passenger liners, had became characteristic hallmarks, just on the same way as the most striking element of the human face is the nose.

    A total of only 14 four-funnelled ocean liners have been built in the history of shipping, although the GREAT EASTERN is sometimes listed here, but it was originally a five-stacker and was only converted to a four-funnelled in cable-laying period of it's service time. However, each of them did not really need four funnels, including the White Star Line's famous OLYMPIC-class trio (OLYMPIC, TITANIC, GIGANTIC - later BRITANNIC II).

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    Fig. 1.: That 14 four-funnel ocean liners which served in shipping companies of different nations through the maritime history. (created by Dr. Tamás Balogh).

     

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    Fig. 2. and 3.: First four-funnelled ships were warships: the H.M.S. TERRIBLE (1845-1879) the largest steam-powered wooden paddle wheel frigate built for the Royal Navy, and the U.S.S. WAMPANOAG (1864-1885), a screw frigatedesigned to be the fastest in the world, were intended for use in hit-and-run operations against British ports and commerce in the event of war (this type of warships widely known as cruisers later). The WAMPANOAG was a speed-recorder of the age with it's18 knots. (Source: to the TERRIBLE here, to the WAMPANOAG here and here.)

     

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    Fig. 4., 5., 6., 7., 8. and 9.: First four-funnelled civilian ships were was the iron paddle-steamers of the ULSTER-class which performed at a speed of 14 knots - ULSTER (1860-1897), MUNSTER (1860-1896), LEINSTER (1860-1896), CONNAUGHT (1860-1897) - built by the Laird's ship builders of Birkenhead for the City of Dublin Steam Pocket Co., and the BEN-MY-CHREE (1875-1906) built by Barrow Shipbuilding Co. for Isle of Man Steam Packet Company.

     

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    Fig. 10., 11. and 12.: Plan and builder's model of the very first four-funnelled ocean liner from 1890. A German engineer employed by Fairfield Shipbuildingand Engineering Company, in Govan, Scotland, Robert Zimmermann, made for GUION LINE a new design for their new record breaker. Stephen Barker Guion (1820–1885) has died, and the then financial instable line, transformed into an incorporation, tried to get a new record vessel after OREGON went back to the builder, who sold it to CUNARD. The newbuild contract never materialized. Zimmermann went back to Germany and seven years later the first four-funnelled ocean liner came into service under German flag.


    In the present study, we are looking for an answer to what has led designers to use such components, which are indifferent to the ship's operability, and that ships with dummy funnels, especially those in the OLYMPIC-class, were really only self-serving results of designer's or customer's arbitrary, without any rationate and practical function?

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    Fig. 13.: Boiler room and fuunnel-arrangement of the famous GREAT EASTERN 1858-1890 (Source: Library of Congress).

     

    I.) On the practical and aesthetic significance of funnels:

    The primary purpose of funnel(s) on steamships is to remove smoke (and smoke gases), heat and excess steam from the boiler(s) located down, in the boiler room(s). As the size of ocean liners increased, more and more boilers were used.

    The boilers were connected directly to the funnels in the middle of the 19th century. It was the so-called simple smoke-exhausting system. However, as the number of boilers increased, smoke-gas exhausting required more and more differentiated technical solutions, since it was also necessary to find a way to connect the flue pipes of those boilers which were located further from the funnel uptakes (had to abandon those previous solution, according to which 1-2, or maximum 4 boilers standing under a certain funnel are connected into the same funnel uptake, since an unlimited number of funnels could not be placed on the upper deck, if passengers should have accommodated too).

    The problem is well illustrated by the fact that the GREAT EASTERN (which was the largest ship in the world for 40 years, and had fundamentally influenced the mindset of designers for decades), had only 10 boilers initially with 5, then (after reducing the number of boilers) with 4 functioning funnels, but the ships of the OLYMPIC-class had 29 boilers per ship with 3 funnels! The technical task to be solved was therefore to divert the combustion products of the boilers located further away from the funnel-uptakes to the funnels as well. In doing so, the horizontal sections had to be avoided, which would have led to a stagnation of the flow of flue gases, a cessation of ventilation, and possibly a return to the combustion chamber (thus reducing the efficiency of the combustion).

    The solution was the development of a complex boiler exhaust assembly system for boilers in the last decade of the 19th and the first of the 20th century. This is consisted of two basic structural elements, between the boilers in the bottom of the vessel and the funnels on the upper deck: (1) special-shaped ventillation shafts (or boiler uptakes) which connect gas exit flanges on the upper part of boilers with the lower part of the funnel uptakes, and (2) the actual vertical funnel -or smoke shafts (i.e. funnel uptakes).

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    Figs. 14. and 15.: GREAT EASTERN’s simple and OLYMPI’s complex boiler exhaust assembly system (blue: boiler, green: boiler uptakes, red: funnel uptakes). (Source: Science Museum and Bruce Beveridge)

     

    By the end of the 19th century, the long rectangular, box-shaped (so-called locomotive) boilers used in steam locomotives had been replaced by cylindrical boilers for ships. According to the widespread practice, a maximum of two rows of single- or double-ended boilers (which had fireplaces at both ends, ie heated from both sides) were connected to one funnel with 3-5 boilers per row. Depending on the number of boilers and the size of the ships, this solution was first used by the Germans to build a four-funnelled ocean liner, which was named KAISER WILHELM der GROSSE (1897-1914). In Germany, it became model of an ocean liner-series (owned by Norddeutscher Lloyd, which built 3 or more ships based on it's plans, but even the great rival HAPAG - Hamburg-Amerikanische Paketafahrt Aktiengesellschaft - used the plans of this ship to build a fast steamer called DEUTSCHLAND).

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    Figs. 16., 17. and 18.: Boiler- and funnel-arrrangement of KAISER WILHELM der GROSSE, its sister ship, KRONPRINZ WILHELM (above) and DEUTSCHLAND (middle) and KAISER WILHELM II and its sister ship, KRONZPRINZESSIN CECILIE (below). (Source: Collection of Dr. Tamás Balogh.)

     

    In the case of German ships, however, the number of funnels has clearly been adapted to aspects other than technical necessity. In their case, unlike the practice of the time, there were not 2-2 rows of single- or double-ended boilers connected to the funnels, but fewer!

    1) In the case of KAISER WILHELM der GROSSE (and its sister ship), only 1-1 rows of double-ended boilers were connected to 3 of the 4 funnels (2 rows of boilers were connected only to the last last funnel, but into one of these rows only single-ended boilers installed).

    2) In the case of DEUSCHLAND, although 2-2 rows of boilers were already connected to all 4 funnels, there was always only single-ended boilers in one row.

    3) Finally, in the case of KAISER WILHELM II (and its sister ship), there was again only one row of double-ended boilers under 1 of the 4 funnels, while in one of each rows of boilers under the other funnels contained only single-ended boilers.

    In other words, while it was already possible at that time to connect 2 rows of double-ended boilers to 1 funnel (with 3-5 boilers per row), only half of this amount (up to one and a half times) was connected to 1-1 funnels on German ships. That is, the flue gas extraction of the boilers - if all the possibilities provided by the technical standards of the age were used to the maximum - could have been solved with fewer funnels! In light of this, the question may arise: what justified this type of funnel-arrangement? The answer is simple: advertising!

    By the first years of the 20th century, the market for transoceanic passenger taffic had changed significantly. The transport of masses of emigrants from Europe to America from the second half of the 19th century onwards, more and more small and medium-sized European shipping companies were set up. Their presence was a challenge for the large national shipping companies, regarding they ordered far more ships than ever before, while - in the supply market - ticket prices were falling consequently. In order to stay afloat, companies have been lowering their prices and relentlessly cutting tariffs to secure a place in the competition. Thus, in many cases, they did not even generate enough revenue for the maintainance costs of their ships, let alone pay dividends to their shareholders.

    A typical case of absorption was recognized by a U.S. financier, John Pierpoint Morgan, who – with the transformation of the International Navigation Co., established in 1871 to merge U.S. transatlantic shipping companies with strong financial support from the Pennsylvania Railroad Company and various banks – acquired shares in the largest European shipping companies (including the English White Star Line) by 1902, and has entered into a co-operation agreement (we would now say a market-sharing agreement) with the German HAPAG and Norddeutscher Lloyd. The International Mercantile Marine Co., which was formed at this time, has since then rationalized the shipbuilding programs of its member companies, but until that the competition was almost unrestricted and ruthless.

    In this situation, all that mattered was for the companies to catch passengers and persuade them to choose their ships for the transatlantic crossing rather than ships of the rival companies. As the 5-7 day voyage was still one of the most dangerous modes of travel at the time (the entry "disappeared at sea" was in too many registers), safety, speed and strength were those primary considerations for the passengers for their decisions. So the German designers set out to design ships that, with their appearance, suggest safety, speed and strength. When German ships actually won one by one the award for fastest Atlantic crossing - the famous Blue Ribbon - four funnel, which originally was just a marketing trick, became a brand and a symbol of speed and safety. Therefore, shipping companies have made every effort in order to be able to put four-funelled ocean-liners into service…

    All right, but exactly what?

    1) For example, they designed – or redesigned – their ships (which were still in the design phase) on that way, so that their boiler-arrangement will be as such that 4 funnels must be built in all conditions (the LUSITANIA and MAURETANIA, which originally designed as three-stacker, thus became four).

    2) Or they built dummy funnels on their ships (as in the case of the OLYMPIC-class) simply just to have four funnels, in order to gave the impression of strength with them, by making their ship’ appearance more impressive.

    Nevertheless the construction of the four-funnelled oceanliners used by competing shipping companies covered a very short period of time, only 25 years from the construction of the KAISER WILHELM der GROSSE in 1897 to the construction of the SS WINDSOR CATLE in 1922. In this quarter of a century, the reason for the use of a larger number of funnels, although in some cases undoubtedly necessary, remained largely symbolic.

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    Fig. 19.: The LUSITANIA (and its sister ship, the MAURETANIA) would have been built with three funnels according to the first plans in 1903. (Source: wikihmong.com)

     

    However, the power and the prestige of the four funnels (which almost created style and fashion at the beginning of the 20th century) began to decline shortly after the First World War and then quickly disappeared. The flagships of the fleets of the large shipping companies, including the IMPERATOR, NORMANDIE and QUEEN MARY, had only three funnels (and often almost even that was unnecessary, since the size and performance of the boilers increased, so the same performance could be achieved with fewer boilers and funnels). The increase in the efficiency of shipbuilding, and the need to preserve (and possibly increase) the space available to passengers, has eventually led to the fact that oceanliners built in the years before the Second World War were only built with a maximum of two funnels, like in case of the BREMEN and EUROPA, the REX and CONTE di SAVOIA, and the MAURETANIA (II.) and QUEEN ELISABETH. And today's modern passenger ships carry only a single stack uniformly…

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    Fig. 20.: Final boiler- and funnel-arrangement of the LUSITANIA (and its sister ship, the MAURETANIA) from 1907. (Source: Illustrated London News, Courtesy of Péter Könczöl.)

     

    II.) OLYMPIC-class dummy funnels - is a "dummy" funnel really disfunctional?

    Units of the OLYMPIC class originally evoking the outline of the latest ocean liners built before them for the White Star Line (i.e. the "Big Four" - ADRIATIC, BALTIC, CEDRIC and CELTIC), as they would have been four- or three-masted ocean liners, with a superstructure split into several parts and only three (!) funnels. However, according to the first preliminary design which made after the construction of LUSITANIA and MAURETANIA in the summer of 1907, were soon replaced by the designs of a much larger and more elegant four-funnelled ship, he led the combustion products of the boilers to the open air. The R.M.S. OLYMPIC and its two sisterships thus eventually had four recognizable, elegant funnels, the first three of which led the combustion flue of the boilers to the open air.

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    Figs. 21., 22. and 23.: Plans of the R.M.S. BALTIC (above), first sketches of the OLYPMIC from 1907 (middle) and view of the ship (below). (Source: Wikimedia, The New York Times, March, 15.1908, Pinterest).

     

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    Figs. 24., 25., 26. and 27.: Boiler and funnel arrangement of the OLYMPIC on the final plans of the ship. (Source: Dr. Tamás Balogh.)

     

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    Figs. 28., 29. and 30.: Spider-like boiler uptakes for the OLYMPIC-class that conveyed flue gases and soot to the funnel uptakes. The size of these structures that are about to be completed is a good indication of how much space they needed over the boilers (Source: Samuel HalpernParks Stephenson). 

     

    A boiler uptakes of 29 shafts, reminiscent of a giant spider, connected to the first three funnels was available for smoke extraction. In contrast, the fourth funnel in the OLYMPIC class (often referred to briefly as a “dummy” funnel) was used for ventilation, ie the fourth funnel was part of the ventilation system, namely it had to be used for the ventilation for the engine room and had to drain the combustion products from the fireplace of the first class smoking room. 

    When OLYPMIC's boilers were converted to burn oil instead of coal in the 1920s, a fan was built into the fourth funnel to extract the flammable gases formed in the oil tanks. The fittings and equipment in the funnel were accessible and maintained by means of ladders built inside the funnel, which help for mechanics in cleaning or even in maintainance.

    The elliptical cross-section funnels were 24 feet, 6 inches, and 19 feet in diameter, height were 70 feet from the boat deck, 150 feet from the waterline, and had an angle of 11 degrees. Each funnel was held by six-six steel wire (wrapped with rope) from each side, which were attached to rims placed on the reinforced lower part of the black-painted funnel collars. The funnel itself was painted buff, the usual White Star Line livery, except for the top quarter, which was painted black to mask the discoloration caused by soot on the funnel collar.

    018019020.jpgFigs. 31., 32. and 33.: TITANIC funnel-arrangement and fourth funnel on the ship's plans (Source: Daily Mail, The Hitory Blog).


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    Fig. 34.: The dummy funnel of the OLYMPIC-class did not determined by aesthetics only. The rear funnel served the following functions: 1) ventilated air to/from the ship’s medical compartment, 2) ventilated air to/from the ship’s engine room, 3) ventilated air to/from the 1st and 2nd Class kitchens, 4) and was a chimney for the 1st Class smoking room fireplace. (Source Illustrated London News)

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    Figs. 35., 36., 37., 38., 39., 40., and 41.: Above the first three funnels of the OLYMPIC-class liners and the fourth funnel in the middle. The bottom three images were taken from the top of the fourth funnel of the OLYMPIC in the 1920s.

     

    III.) Were other ships built with dummy funnels?

    That's right! Even not one! As mentioned in the introduction to the study, not all of the 14 four-funnelled liners would have needed four funnels! In fact of the 14 ships, only 11 actually needed four funnels to discharge the combustion products from their boilers.

    At the same time, dummy funnels for the White Star Line’s three OLYMPIC-class ships has long been the subject of debate. The German website on the work of the German Shipbuilding Technical Society (Schiffsbautechnische Gesellschaft) from 1901 to 1930, for example, traces the aesthetic debate of the fourth dummy funnel of the OLYMPIC class in 1917 (!).

    Why this renowned society of German civil and naval shipbuilding engineers considered this topic important in the third year of the war, and why the abandonment of the fourth funnel still met with fierce resistance after the construction of the first two ships of the three-funnelled IMPERATOR-class, is a mystery.

    The translation of the description commemorating the 1917 debate is as follows:

    "Prof. Lienau [professor at the Royal Prussian Technical College in Danzig, today Gdansk, Poland], gave a lecture on the fourth funnel of the Olympic / Titanic, which was only a dummy funnel, and then discussed his proposal for another three-funnelled fast steamer, which others strongly opposed it."

     

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    Fig. 42.: Otto Lienau's demonstration (Source: Otto Lienau: Schiffbau als Kunst, in.: Jahrbuch der Schiffbautechnischen Gesellschaft, 1918. 328. o., collection of Dr. Tamás Balogh).

     

    However, out of the 11 real four-funnelled ocean-going steamers mentioned, 7 (the 4 KAISER-class ships of the German Norddeutscher Lloyd, the DEUTCHLAND of the German HAPAG Line, the ARUNDEL CASTLE and WINDSOR CASTLE of the british Union-Castle Line) only had four funnels just because their plans had been modified such a way, although two funnels would have been enough for them. Funnels that originally served for boilers that actually operate in two boiler rooms were separated per boilers, so instead of one funnel per boiler room they received two funnels (one per boiler), that is, in their case, artificially (not because of technical necessity) four funnels were created.

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    Figs. 43. and 44.: WINDSOR CASTLE ocean liner in its original condition and after reconstruction. There was no need for four funnels! (Source: Wikipedia)

     

    2 ships out of 11 (the LUSITANIA and MAURETANIA of the British Cunard Line), only three funnels were originally designed in the same way as the first plans of the OLYMPIC-class, and only due to the success of the German four-stackers - so only for advertising reasons - they decided to change the plans and order four-funnelled ocean liners. All in all, therefore, only 2 of the 14 vessels actually and indisputably had four funnels from the very first stage of design: in case of AQUITANIA of the Cunard Line and FRANCE (II) of the Compaigne Générale Transatlantique ('Transat'), although the real four-funnelled nature of the latter is debatable given the boiler arrangement.

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    Figs. 45. and 46.: Longitudinal section of the only real four-stackers, the AQUITANIA (above) and the FRANCE (II.). (Source: Dr. Tamás Balogh)

     

    Moreover, the ships of the OLYMPIC-class were not only unique among their four-funelled contemporaries in the use of dummy funnels: the famous German Ballin Trio, the three-funnelled ships of the IMPERATOR-class, also had a dummy funnel at the rear. This was the case with the sister ships CAP POLONIO and CAP TRAFFALGAR of the Hamburg-Süd Line, or the STRATHNAVER of the Peninsular and Orient Line (P&O), the ILE de FRANCE and NORMANDIE of the CGT, the EMPRESS of BRITAIN of the Canadian Pacific Line, or BRITANNIC (III.) of the WSL and AMERICA of the US Lines, and we could continue. What's more! In case of Cunard Line's two-stacker sister ships of ANDRIA and ALSATIA in the 1950s (!), the first funnel was a dummy funnel as well. This means that then - even after the design-revolution, the constructivism, and the functionalism - it was a common feeling that to seem bigger, is better.

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    Fig. 47.: On ships in the IMPERATOR-class, the rear funnel (although the ships had “only” three funnels) was also a dummy. (Source: Dr. Tamás Balogh)

     

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    Fig. 48.: And when there are already just two funnels, but they are also too many: AMERICA and its dummy-funnel (this time the first). (Source: Dr. Tamás Balogh)

     

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    Figs. 49. and 50.: BRITANNIC (III.) above and her sister GEORGIC (below). GEORGIC originally also had two funnels, but it was converted to a single-stacker by removing the forward dummy-funnel in World War II. (Source: Wikipedia)

     

    So, using parts (by neglect of material- and cost-saving) which were completely unnecessary for technical reasons, just for the sake of appearance (purely for design, or optical purposes), was a common thing for a long time.

    Perhaps one of the most extraordinary of these items was the third funnel of the NORMANDIE, which, however, was not a completely inoperable piece: the kennel for the dogs of the passengers were placed in it. The dog kennel was a place surrounded by stainless steel bars, in the middle of which was an drinking fountain for the animals in an oval space. The kennels were steam-heated, ventilated rooms with fresh litter and straw waiting for the animals daily. Allowed daily exercise for the dogs was provided on the upper deck around the funnel base. Of course, rescue equipment was also provided for the dogs in puppy, large and medium sizes, and a special daily menu was printed in French (offering a variety of bones, soups, biscuits and vegetables). A separate veterinarian was also available on board if required.

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    Figs. 51.: Dog Kennels, located inside the third - dummy - funnel of NORMANDIE (Source: Popular Mechanics, August, 1939.)

     

    IV.) Under the spell of funnels:

    Designer of the GREAT EASTERN,the  French-born British engineer genius Isambard Kingdom Brunnel once responded to accusations connected to his liner-plans (according to that building a ship of such a huge size is uneconomical and unnecessary) that “the bigger is better”.

    His idea hadn't been approved for nearly 40 years, but now we know that he was right. He is not wanted that his ships won the title of the largest sea-going steamers for selfish purposes. These ships had been built so big only for they could take on board the amount of coal needed to cross the ocean without refueling. They had to be large in the first place, and many passengers had to be accommodated to make their journeys profitable.

    Incidentally, the large size was accompanied by stability, seaworthiness, which was of great value to passengers who wanted to cross safely (even if, as is well known, all pioneers had a hard time, so the handling of Brunnel’s vast and unprecedented ocean liners was not an easy task either, and the necessarily untrained crew certainly caused many accidents).

    Still, the “mania for size” brought to life by talented or just untalented engineers trying to follow Brunnel, continues to this day. An interesting side effect of this was the attraction to multi-funnelled ocean-going vessels, as the epitome of safety, speed and power, which was initially embodied in the construction of the four-stackers, but we also know of a case where designers flirted with the idea of installing even more funnels…

    The following are manifestations of this strange mania for size (presenting three unrealized oceanliner plans, which were partly intended as a joke):

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    Figs. 52.: Concept of Jochann Schütte for the KAISER WILHELM II. in 1902. (Source: Pinterest)

     

    The success of the first fourstacker oceanliners (the KAISER WILHELM der GROSSE and its sistership, KRONPRINZ WILHELM, and the rival DEUTSCHLAND) prompted the shipping company Norddeutscher Lloyd, to build new, larger and faster ones.

    Answering the order of the company, in 1900, several designers prepared a design proposal for the new ships (later KAISER WILHELM II and its sister ship, KRONPRINZESSIN CECILIE). Jochann Schütte's project to upgrading the KAISER-class stood out from the rest by he had now installed even five (!) funnels on the upper deck, instead of the previous four.

    His plans contained nothing new in other respects, only in that the German engineer gave the hull of his ship the shape of the warships, more precisely the stern of the cruisers - perhaps as a result of the universal interest in warship-building (which was booming at the time and was also of great concern to the public, and the patriotic sentiments centered around it).

    This is all the more remarkable because the so-called cruiser-stern began to spread on ocean liners only about ten years later, but only gained popularity in the 1930s following the success of the largest liner built with cruiser stern, the QUEEN MARY.

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    Figs. 53.: Concept of William Francis Gibbs for the INDPENDENCE in 1915. (Source: The New York Times, August 3. 1919.)

     

    The background of this situation is well highlighted by the third example is a funny mirror in front of all car-crazy people, which is nothing more than a caricature made by a German photographer in the 1920s as a prank for April 1st. Using a picture of VATERLAND (US-owned LEVIATHAN) confiscated from the Germans, he created a photomontage of a ten-funnelled limousine oceanliner – the imaginary PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT – as a reference to the contemporary enthusiasm for vast dimensions.

     

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    Figs. 54.: The German caricature-photo. (Source)


    Sources:

    http://magnificenttitanic.tumblr.com/page/32

    http://www.copperas.com/titanic/boiler.htm

    http://www.titanic-theshipmagnificent.com/synopsis/chapter15/

    http://de.academic.ru/dic.nsf/technik/19532/Schiffskessel

    http://www.sterling.rmplc.co.uk/visions/pwrtr.html

    http://www.oshermaps.org/search/zoom.php?no=2001046.0003#img2

    http://wesworld.jk-clan.de/thread.php?postid=102467

    https://fbcdn-sphotos-b-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-prn2/1377371_741929022491100_634000637_n.jpg

     

    It would be great if you like the article shared. If you are interested in the works of the author, you can find more information about the author and his work on the Encyclopedia of Ocean Liners Fb-page.

     

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  • s.s. KAISERIN ELISABETH, 1912-1920 - The unfinished liner of the Austro-Americana

    Tags: balogh_tamás, tit_hajózástörténeti_modellező_és_hagyományőrző_egyesület, tit_hmhe, hajózástörténeti_tagozat, Isonzo, Trieszt, Triest, Trieste, TIT, Monfalcone, Ocean_liners, Kaiserin_Elisabeth, Cosulich, Austro-Americana, Encyclopedia_of_ocean_liners

    World War I delayed or completely thwarted the construction of several large ocean-going passenger ships planned or under construction across Europe. Work on the giant steamer under construction for Austro-Americana, one of Austria-Hungary's largest transatlantic shipping companies, was also suspended. The ship built in the Monfalcone Shipyard near Trieste, eventually became one of the "victims" of the unfolding military operations as the front line oscilled for several times through the shipyard. What kind of ship would it have been? What justified fot the Dual Monarchy the building a passenger ship of a hitherto unknown size in the country, and what caused its doom? This study answers these questions.

     

    I.) Background - Birth of Austro-Americana:

    The favorite of Austrian (Austro-Hungarian between 1867-1918) shipping was the Austrian Lloyd (Österreichischen Lloyd) shipping company, founded in 1833. At the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, it had a total of 65 ships with 235,000 GRT and more than 6,000 employees, so it was the largest merchant shipping company in the country. For a long time, it had no rivals in the Austro-Hungarian Empire on the northern shores of the Adriatic (the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea).

    The seafarers of the empire, for the most part, carried only local and Mediterranean sailing, also typically with sailing ships. However, members of the Cosulich family in Lussipiccolo (today: Mali Losinj, Croatia) - Antonio Felice Cosulich and his sons Castillo and Alberto - recognized that the future is belonged to the steam shipping, and in 1895 was set up the Cosulich Shiping Line (Cosulich Società Triestina di Navigazione) in the main Austrian port of Trieste, which city was then under the jurisdiction of Austria-Hungary.

    In the same year, 1895, Austrian hauler Gottfried August Schenker and Scottish shipping merchant William Burell to establish the freight line of Austrian-American Shiping Co. (or Compagnia di Navigazione Austro-Americana) between Austria and North America, initially with an eye on supplying the Austrian textile and cotton industry, with the aim of decoupling the supply of Austrian industry from expensive German and unreliable Italian ports. The company was also headquartered in Trieste.

    Taking advantage of the economic crisis of 1901-1902, the Cosulich brothers acquired all shares of William Burell when he left the company and they became co-owners of the Austro-Americana in 1902, which henceforth had been known as Schenker, Cosulich und Co., Austro-Americana. At the same time, Alberto Cosulich set up a shipyard in Monfalcone (that was the Cantiere Navale Triestino - CNT) near Trieste. One year later, the Cosulich brothers also contributed their existing 14 cargo steamships to the joint venture, which was renamed as "Vereinigte österreichische Schiffahrtsgesellschaften der Austro-Americana und der Gebrüder Cosulich" (Italian: Unione Austriaca di navigation e Fratel-li Cosulich Societá anonima), so that the name Schenker was omitted from the company name. The company's 19 cargo ships sailed on the Trieste-Messina-Naples-Palermo-New York route, and in 1904 the company became involved in transatlantic passenger transport as well.

    Transatlantic emigration from the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy was for a long time in the hands of the German Norddeutscher Lloyd and the Hamburg America Line, but in 1902 the British Cunard Line agreed with the Hungarian government to expatriate Hungarian emigrants through the Hungarian port of Fiume (today Rijeka, Croatia), and the concession was extended in 1903 to Austrian subjects too. Some part of Cunard's profits "flowed back" to the Hungarian shipping companies, so in return they voluntarily gave up the competition. (The most well-known Cunard ship depart from Fiume, was the CARPATHIA steamer, rescuing the survivors of the TITANIC).

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    Fig. 1: Routes of the Austrian and Hungarian merchant shipping companies 1833-1918. Austro-Americana sailed primarily to the North and South American continents, the Austrian Lloyd to Africa and the Middle and Far East, and the Hungarian shipping companies typically sailed to the Black, Aegean and Mediterranean ports (created by : Dr. Tamás Balogh).

     

    However, Austro-Americana, founded by the Cosulich brothers in Trieste, reacted differently when it decided not to hand over the entire emigration business to the English. On June 9, 1904, the company's steamer GERTY set sail for New York, with 314 emigrants on board. The German companies endorsed the Austrian ‘standstill’ (if their own ships had already dropped out of this race) and opened the ‘Atlantic Pool’, a price cartel of shipping companies transporting emigrants to the line, which had it's own effect: the Austro-Americana's freight and passenger traffic soared.

    Voyages to New Orleans and South America began in 1907 (the New Orleans route was discontinued in 1908), and an agreement was reached with Canadian Pacific in 1913 to provide alternative routes from Trieste to Canada, but this was ultimately not found economical and after 6 trips (still in 1913) it was decided to stop continuing the service. In 1904, the company's ships carried only 4,224 people and 2,172 tons of cargo, but by 1912, there were already 101,670 passengers and 10,133 tons of cargo (that is, during only 8 years, the number of passengers increased in twenty-four times, and freight-traffic quadrupled). The company's fleet numbered 28 units in 1914, handling almost 17% of all maritime freight to Austria-Hungary (95% of goods from South America).

    This, of course, required new, modern, large passenger ships and, of course, additional capital, provided in part by Austrian government subsidies (1.53 million Kronen in 1903) much less than in the case of the Austrian Lloyd's of 10 million Kronen in the same year. As a result, as early as 1911, a profit of 1.5 million Kronen was distributed among the shareholders. It is no coincidence that this company built the largest Austro-Hungarian transatlantic ocean liners. The 5,491-tonne SOFIE HOHENBERG, named after the consort of the Austro-Hungarian heir to the throne, was built in Trieste in 1905. The 8,312-tonne MARTHA WASHINGTON, named after the wife of the first American president, was built in Glasgow in 1908. The 12,568-tonne KAISER FRANZ JOSEF I, named after the emperor and king of the Dual Monarchy was built in Trieste in 1911 as the largest (launched) steamer in Austro-Americana fleet and the largest merchant ship of the Country.

    Following the success of Austro-Americana, in 1912 the company's shipyard in Monfalcone began building an even larger ship, the KAISERIN ELISABETH, which, however, could never be completed due the outbreak of World War I. Yet, if built, this ocean liner would have been the largest Austro-Hungarian ship ever built…

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    Fig. 2: Liner-series of the Austro-Americana: Profile drawings of the, MARTHA WASHINGTON (above) which was built as a model at Russel & Co. Shipyard in Glasgow; the KAISER FRANZ JOSEF I. (in the middle) which was built on the basis of the plans of the previous, but as a result of own design of the Monfalcone-shipyard; and finally the KAISERIN ELISABETH, of which the first attempt to reconstruct it's profile drawing made in 2015 (created by Dr. Tamás Balogh).

     

    I.) Construction and demolition of KAISERIN ELISABETH:

    Construction works of the largest Austro-Hungarian liner, the KAISER FRANZ JOSEF I. not finished, when the owner shipping company and the builder (Monfalcone shipyard near Trieste) begun preliminary studies and preparation of plans for the second unit, the bigger and faster KAISERIN ELISABETH. The new ship designed to the North-Atlantic route for the service between Europe and North America.

    KAISERIN ELISABETH's plans are based on the company's latest ships, MARTHA WASHINGTON and KAISER FRANZ JOSEF I.

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    Fig. 3 and 4: The birthplace of Austro-Americana ships in the Cantiere Navale Triestino Monfalcone. In the south-eastern part of the shipyard, 7 and in the north-western part (in the newly built-up part), there were 3 additional slipways for the construction of ships of different sizes. The largest ships were built on the longest and widest slipways (No. 2 and 3). The picture below shows a terrain table made from the shipyard in 1914, on the left of which is a model of the KAISERIN ELISABETH, lifted into the floating dock (source: Consorzio Culturale MonfalconeseMuseo del Mare, Trieste).

     

    Length (waterline):         164,59 m

    length (owerall):              175,0 m

    Beam:                              20,65 m

    Draught:                           13,18 m

    Displacement:                  14 700 GRT

    Speed:                              19,5 knots (36,1 km / h)

    Capacity:                           2 000 passenger

    Propulsion:                        2 shafts, 2 × triple expansion engines

     

    When the first months of operation of the newly overhanded KAISER FRANZ JOSEF I. definitely provided a positive experience, the company's management speed up the construction of the new vessel.

    The chronology of the construction process and the forced shutdown caused by the war, followed by the demolition of the almost complete hull after the war, is as follows:

    November 30, 1912. Laid down in Monfalcone Shipyard (yard number is No. 39). Some authors wrote that the first big transatlantic liner built in this yard was the CONTE GRANDE of 1927, but the truth is: the KAISERIN ELISABETH was first big liner built there.

    October 14, 1914.: A construction worker injured in advanced stages of construction. Due to the outbreak of war the construction is suspended. At that time, the plant would continue production at the DDSG shipyard in Budapest (the Óbuda shipyard) and the Azrenál in Pola (mostly to fulfill military orders, including the production of U-27 submarines for the fleet).

    May 1915: After the Italian declaration of war the Austro-Hungarian and Italian front line has passed through many times of Monfalcone shipyard, where the unfinished hull standing. The ship has been damaged several times (due to more artillery hit a fire broke out in the interior).

    July 1915: The Italian offensive launched on the Isonzo Front on June 23, 1915 - due to deficiencies in proper preparation and complete disregard for terrain - stalled in early July, and the Monarchy Army launched a large-scale counterattack on July 18. One of the “victims” of the military operations was KASIERIN ELISABETH in the shipyard that situated exactly on the front line. The shipyard was brought under Italian military control on 9 June with the first Italian attack. In response to the Italian attack that stalled on July 7, artillery preparations for the Austro-Hungarian counterattack will begin the next day, July 8, during of which the entire shipyard and the ocean liner on the slipway damaged severly. The 15,000-tonne giant, which is in the advanced stages of construction, is hit by several Italian incendiary grenades up to the height of the lower deck of the middle superstructure, which causes catastrophic fires inside the hull, which are further damaged by the subsequent bombing of Italian artillery.

    October 1915: Artillery bombardment of the Austro-Hungarian army advancing in the direction of Monfalcone, damages again the hull burnt out by fire, which is virtually impossible to extinguish between the two fronts on no-man's land.

    October 1917: After the breakthrough in Caporetto (the collapse of the Italian front on October 24, 1917), Austro-Hungarian troops recaptured the shipyard and docks. The Cosulich family turns to the imperial and royal governments for compensation to recover the shipyard from the damages caused by the military operations and to restart production. It is presumed, that for a period of time (until a full damage assessment has been made) the owners were planned repair the damage to the ship and continue construction work. They changed the name of the ship to ISONZO (after the location of those victorious battles which made possible to take back the shipyard). However, a thorough analysis reveals that there is nothing to recover on the ship, as the giant in the line of fire has been so badly damaged by successive artillery attacks that it is impossible to repair.

    November 1918: Although the Padua armistice (November 3, 1918) said the territory of the Monfalcone shipyard remained with the Monarchy, the loss of the war (and the disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy as a consequence of it) completely thwarted the utilization of the huge ship. The parts of it completed so far will therefore be demolished after the Italian occupation of Triest.

    October 1920: Removal of the last structural elements of the semi-finished vessel.

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    Fig. 5: Hulls of two ocean liners constructed on the commission by Austro-Americana, photographed on June 9, 1915, by Italian war correspondents arriving at the shipyard from the northwest. The ship on the starboard is KAISERIN ELISABETH.

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    Fig. 6: A close-up view from the stern of the ship clearly showing the rudder and one of the propellers, as well as the stern superstructure and the open promenade, below that. The fully opened lower promenade (guarded with a steel parapet) of the midship superstructure can be seen forward. Above it is the upper promenade which guarded with steel parapet on it's forward part only (on the left side of the picture). (Source: Atlante / Dizionario del 1915 in Friuli Venezia Giulia)

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    Fig. 7: Ocean liners, abandoned incomplete forcilby, and all the perforated side plates (in the foreground) stacked for the construction supported on top of each other. (Source: Associazione Marinara Aldebaran, Trieste)

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    Fig. 8: Left side of KAISERIN ELISABETH facing the Italian positions at the start of the attack. The middle superstructure and its two promenade decks can be clearly visible: the lower (guarded with steel parapet in full length) and the upper (guarded with steel parapet only in it's fore end). The smoke stacks of the first funnel is visible on the upper promenade deck and the rectangular structure of the engine shaft is visible in the rear.

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    Fig. 9: Smoke rises from the hull, soot and burn marks above some openings. The “Italian side” of the ship damaged in the artillery attack in June 1915. The promenade decks of the middle superstructure are clearly visible: the lower guarded with parapet in it's full-length and the upper which guarded by parapet only in the first half. (Source: Associazione Marinara Aldebaran, Trieste)

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    Fig. 10: Starboard side of the ship from the Austro-Hungarian forces. Trace of a direct artillery hit at the front, just below the upper row of windows in the bow. Signs of strong burns everywhere on the discolored hull. (Source: Wikimedia Commons).

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    Figs. 11, 12 and 13: Object No. 39 on the slipway in 1919. In the middle picture, Italian soldiers are talking in the foreground. Next to the ocean liner (in the mesh of the wooden scaffolding), a cruiser originally built for China and then seized for the Austro-Hungarian Navy at the outbreak of the war, which also remained unfinished due to the transit of the front. (Source: Associazione Marinara Aldebaran, Trieste)

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    Fig. 14: During clearing the ruins on the shipyard site, the above picture was taken in the early 1920s, when the ocean liner built originally on the slipway next to the KAISERIN ELISABETH had already been dismantled and a new large slipway was built in place (and reinforced concrete pillars of it, holding the crane track, were shuttered). There are plenty openings in the hull below the waterline which were cut in order to the demolition workers can enter the ship. The two decks of the middle superstructure, the aft superstructure and the parapets of the forward well-deck have already been clearly demolished. This is the last known picture of the ship. (Source: Associazione Marinara Aldebaran, Trieste)

     

    III.) Reconstruction of the ship:

    To the best of our knowledge, the ship's plans have not survived. In addition to the main dimensions, what is known about the appearance and general arrangement of the ship is based on just a few sources:

    1) Several photographs have survived of the hull under construction or damaged due to the transit of the front (Figures 5-14), which are preserved in Italian archives.

    2) The ship appears on the large panel of the famous Austrian naval painter Alex Kircher (1867-1939) depicting the port of Trieste, which is now on display at the Technisches Museum in Vienna (Fig. 15-16).

    3) In addition, there is a terrain table made in the port in 1914 (Fig. 4), the creators also made a small-scale model of the ship (Figs. 17-19). The terrain table is preserved in the Museo del Mare of Trieste.

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    Figs. 15 and 16: Alexander Kircher's "Triester Hafen" ("The Port of Trieste"). a painting from 1918 (below on the previous page) and a detail of it depicting the ship (above).

     

    Together, these sources have made it possible to reconstruct the ship’s main features, which we are now happy to share with those interested. Reconstruction was hampered by the fact that the three sources (the contemporary painting, the photographs, and the model on the contemporary terrain table) depict certain details differently. Of these, the photographs were accepted as authentic, the small-scale model and the painting of the period, used only where there is no doubt about the authenticity of the details on them.

    In view of the above, about the general arrangement of the ship can be said with great certainty: the 175-meter-long ship would have been a three-funnelled, two-masted, twin screw vessel, with three harmoniously arranged superstructures (forecastle, amidship island and raised poop deck); with a conventional triple-expansion steam engine.

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    Figs. 17, 18 and 19: Terrain table at the Cantiere Navale Triestino shipyard in Monfalcone with a model of the ship. (Source: Wikipedia, Pinterest).

     

    The contemporary depictions contained the most differentions in the design of the promenades of the superstructures and the navigation bridge. 

     

    1)  The model on the terrain table of the shipyard (which is so small that not even the access doors on the side of the hull have been worked out) shows two promenade decks on the amidship superstructure, the lower one opened at its full length and the one above is glazed at the front end and equipped with an open promenade in the back. There is a parapet at the front of the two promenade decks and only handrails at the rear protect the passengers (but the plate parapet on the upper proemnade deck is longer).

    The forecastle is separated from the amidship superstructure by a forward well-deck. On this is the foremast and one of the cargo hatches of the forward cargo spaces (the pair of which is located in front of the foremast on the forecastle).

    According to the model, two promenade decks have also been built in the aft part of the ship: an open proemande into the hull protected by a parapet (which runs around the rounded stern of the hull above the stern post of the counter stern) and an open promenade above the previous one as short section on each side of the stern superstructure (the top of this promenades is a platform for launching lifeboats on the superstructure).

    Hatches leading to the aft cargo spaces were located in the open deck section separating the raised poop deck from the amidships island. The main mast stands in the middle of the first half of the stern superstructure.

    The bridge was standing at the front end of the boat deck (which formed the uppermost level of the amidship superstructure), on the roof of the deckhouse, which housed the officers, suites drawn backwards from the front parapet, and pulled considerably backwards from its front wall. The wings of the bridge were open in its entire length.

     

    2)  In the Kircher painting, on the other hand, the front of both promenades of the middle superstructure is glass-enclosed (the lower is longer) and protected along its entire length by a plated parapet.

    On each side of the forward well-deck separating the forecastle from the amidship superstructure was a deckhouse connected to the parapets with a lifeboat at the top.

    Raised poop deck is not visible. In the painting, only a deck house similar to that one is on the forward well-deck appears, with a lifeboat on top. The hull lacks an opened promenade around the rounded stern on the top of the stern post.

    At the front end of the boat deck (the width of the officers' quater, between it's front wall and the forward parapet of the boat deck) is a glass-enclosed corridor through which passengers can pass between the two sides of the boat deck. It also serves as a windscreened lookout point for them on the ocean.

    The vertical plane of the front wall of the wheelhouse in the center of the navigating bridge is the same as the plane of the forward parapet of the boat deck.

    At the end of the two wings of the bridge are a wing caps (navigation cabins).

     

    3)  The photographs show a different genaral arrangement at several points from that, what described above. It is true that the amidship superstructure has two promenade deck above each other, but the lower promenade (which is open to its full length) is protected by a plated parapet. Handrails can only be found on the aft (opened) part of the upper promenade (there is a plated parapet only on the forward part, where the upper promenade is glass-enclosed).

    The bridge and the wheelhouse had not yet been built at the time of the photographs were made, but on the basis of the parapet on the forward end of the upper deck of the amidship superstructure (the boat deck) it is probable that the solution shown in the model of the shipyard terrain table was used (instead of the solution shown in the Kircher painting).

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    Figs. 20, 21 and 22: General arrangement as seen from the Kircher painting (above), the model (middle) and the photographs (below) (created by Dr. Tamás Balogh).

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    Fig. 23: Revised reconstruction of the ship based on the new-found photographs (created by Dr. Tamás Balogh).

     

    Epilogue:

    KAISERIN ELISABETH was the largest ocean liner to be built in the Mediterranean basin at the time of its keel laying in 1912. However, its priority would not have lasted long, even if World War I had not broken out and the ship's construction would be completed and it would begin its scheduled voyages. The three GALLIA-class French ocean liners (GALLIA, LUTETIA and MASSILIA), which were in service during 1913-1914, were slightly larger in size (with 182 m in length and 14,966 tonnes in displacement), and two new italian liners began construction in 1916, the DUILIO and the GIULIO CESARE - although these ships were not completed until after the war (just in 1923 and 1926) - were considerably bigger (with 194 m in length and 25,000 tonnes in displacement).

    Nevertheless the most special rival for the largest merchant ship in the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy did not come from France or Italy, but from Germany, when the German shipping company HAPAG, which operated profitable North Atlantic shipping services, ordered two new ocean liners, for its Italian affiliate company Transatlantica Italiana Societa Anonima di Navigazione, which was aquisitioned in 1913. (this line was founded in 1897 under the name Ligure Brasiliana): one liner for the North Atlantic traffic and one for the South Atlantic routes to sail from Italian ports and under the Italian flag. The North Atlantic steamer and its sisiter ship, the CONTE di CAVOUR, to be built under the name ANDREA DORIA, would have been 237 m long and 37,000 tonnes in displacement, while their smaller counterpart for the South Atlantic would have been built exactly in the same size cathegory as the KAISERIN ELISABETH, with 175,4 m long and 18,500 tons in displacement.

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    Fig. 24: Comparison of KAISERIN ELISABETH and TITANIC (above). The upper size category of the Mediterranean ocean liners of the 1910s evoked the size of the largest Atlantic ocean liners of the 1890s. The size of the KAISERIN ELISABETH was around as the length of the CITY OF ROME built in 1881 (171 m), and as the displacement of the CAMPANIA launched in 1895 (13 000 tonnes) (created by Dr. Tamás Balogh).

    Fig. 25: General arrangement of KAISERIN ELISABETH (below) (created by Dr. Tamás Balogh).

     

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    Fig. 26: KAISERIN ELISABETH and its French and Italian rivals (created by Dr. Tamás Balogh).

     

    However, the construction of these ships also failed: after Italy entered the First World War against its former allies, Germany and Austria-Hungary, in 1915, an Italian board of directors was formed and all German-owned shares in the company were bought, and a year later have given control of the Ansaldo group. The company was liquidated in 1934. The planned large ships were never built. After the war, the Cosulich brothers also restructured their businesses. Austro-Americana continued to operate in the name of the brothers in Trieste, now under Italian rule, as the Cosulich Line until 1937, when it merged into the new, unified Italian national shipping company and continued to operate under the Italia Societa Anonima di Navigazione. The first major post-war ocean liners of the Cosulich Line were built in Monfalcone under the names SATURNIA and VULCANIA in 1925 and 1926 (ships were 200 m long and had a capacity of 24,000 tons).

     

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    Fig. 27: Planned German rivals of KAISERIN ELISABETH (created by Dr. Tamás Balogh).

     

    Sources:

    To the ocean liners of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy (only in Hungarian):

    https://hajosnep.hu/Media/Default/hu-HU/tevekenyseg/hirlevelek/2010/2010-evfolyam-2-szam.pdf?fbclid=IwAR266rxunAvYFE3VPn-aS61xG0EJyvkgpZ2ZTy1KhePHcTKC4yWQ5ZCTwj8

    To the shown photographic images:

    http://www.studistorici.com/2012/12/29/carnemolla_numero_12-sala-b/?fbclid=IwAR0t2bW-pxVxRLyW-3hWkVJ6ChHkyGrGsGxuABX-qmVLeUi5Y_yekVWKMx0

    To the ship’s story:

    http://www.archeologiaindustriale.it/sez_produzione_it...

    Other sources:

    https://www.facebook.com/piccolomuseotrieste/photos/a.613516462153412/1068713976633656

    http://www.atlantegrandeguerra.it/portfolio/monfalcone/

    http://www.atlantegrandeguerra.it/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/4a-MonfalconeCCM-1.jpg

    https://journals.openedition.org/diacronie/2594

    https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cantiere_Navale_Triestino

    https://www.wrecksite.eu/imgBrowser.aspx?11388

    https://www.wikiwand.com/it/Cantiere_Navale_Triestino

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Number_64-class_cruiser

    https://www.google.com/search?q=Cantiere+Navale+Triestino+Monfalcone+1915&tbm=isch&ved=2ahUKEwjis5CJuaX1AhXJ34UKHUiqA0QQ2-cCegQIABAA&oq=Cantiere+Navale+Triestino+Monfalcone+1915&gs_lcp=CgNpbWcQA1DXB1i7a2CLbWgAcAB4A4ABgQGIAeoIkgEDMy43mAEAoAEBqgELZ3dzLXdpei1pbWfAAQE&sclient=img&ei=Gj3bYeK-OMm_lwTI1I6gBA&bih=568&biw=1366#imgrc=g83s9aAyWX2XdM

    https://www.facebook.com/page/167321909959726/search/?q=Kaiserin%20Elisabeth

    https://www.theshipslist.com/ships/lines/cosulich.shtml

    https://www.theshipslist.com/ships/lines/transitaliana.shtml

    https://earlofcruise.blogspot.com/2017/07/history-austro-americana-austro-hungary.html

    https://earlofcruise.blogspot.com/2017/07/history-one-of-earliest-steam-ship.html

    https://earlofcruise.blogspot.com/2017/07/history-one-of-earliest-steam-ship_30.html

    https://www.austrianinformation.org/current-issue-summerfall-2013/austro-americana

     

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